GEN 3.5 METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES

 

GEN 3.5.1 Responsible service

The Aeronautical Meterorological Authority in Iceland is the Icelandic Transport Authority. The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) is the Meteorological Watch Office (MWO) and along with Isavia the meteorological service provider for aviation in Iceland. The service is provided according to a service contract between the Ministry of Transport and Local Government and Isavia and a collaborating contract between Isavia and IMO.
  Icelandic Met Office 
Bustadavegi 9
IS-150 Reykjavik, Iceland 
Telephone:  + 354 522 6000
Telefax:  + 354 522 6001 
AFS:  BIRKYMYX
E-mail: office@vedur.is
Website:  https://en.vedur.is/weather/aviation/
  Isavia ANS 
Nautholsvegur 60-66
IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland
Telephone:  + 354 424 4000
Telefax:  N/A
AFS:  BIRKZQZQ
E-mail: isavia@isavia.is
Internet:  https://www.isavia.is/en/corporate/c- preflight-information/aviation-weather

GEN 3.5.1.1 Appropriate Documents

The service is provided in accordance with the provisions contained in the following documents:
 
Regulation nr. 720/2019. Translation of (EU) 2017/373.
Regulation (EU) 2017/373 - common requirements for providers of air traffic management/air navigation services and other air traffic management network functions and their oversight.
ICAO Annex 3 - Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation.
ICAO Doc 7030 - Regional Supplementary Procedures. 
ICAO Doc 8896 - Manual of Aeronautical MET Practices.
ICAO Doc 9328 - Manual of Runway Visual Range Observing and Reporting Practices.
ICAO Doc 9377 - Manual on Co-ordination between Air Traffic Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services.
ICAO Doc 9634 eANP NAT region.
WMO Publication No. 9 Weather Reports. 
WMO Technical Regulations No. 49.
Differences to these provisions are detailed in GEN 1.7

GEN 3.5.2 Area of Responsibility

The Icelandic Meteorological Office is the official meteorological office in Iceland and is the Meteorological Watch Office in respect to air navigation services. IMO monitors and issues warnings relating to hazardous weather phenomena in Reykjavik FIR/CTA and collects and distributes meteorological information according to flight.
Isavia is responsible for METARs observations and distribution for other airports than Reykjavik and Keflavik which are in the responsibility of IMO. ISAVIA contribution to the weather service is also by monitoring and distributing information about hazardous weather phenomena.

GEN 3.5.3 Meteorological observations and reports

GEN 3.5.3.1 Surface weather observations

Airports weather reports are either made manually or with aid of automatic instruments:
  1. Routine reports METAR
    For the aerodromes at Keflavik, Reykjavik, Akureyri and Egilsstadir are disseminated 24 hours, half hourly from Keflavík, but hourly from other aerodromes.
    Keflavik reports are included in Shannon VOLMET broadcasts in Ireland (see VOLMET table).
  1. Special reports
    SPECI is issued whenever a significant deterioration or improvement of weather is observed between the routine observations.
    If the weather is deteriorating, SPECI is issued immediately but if it is improving, it is issued 10 minutes after the significant improvement.
    These reports are disseminated in the same way as METARs. SPECI may also be issued on a specific occasion on request by ATS or operator.
  1. METAR reports, for the aerodromes at Bildudalur, Isafjordur, Gjogur, Grimsey, Husavik, Hornafjordur, Thorshofn, Vopnafjordur and Vestmannaeyjar are issued hourly during the hours of services at each airport (see AD 2.3.7).
    SPECI reports are issued whenever a significant chance of weather is observed.
    METAR og SPECI reports are distributed via AMHS to ATS, airlines and OPMET databanks. They are also available at the IMO website.

GEN 3.5.3.2 Surface wind

Wind speed and direction are measured at all Icelandic airports included in following tables with cup anemometers or Ultrasonic Wind Sensors. All the anemometers are installed about 7-10 meters above ground level. At each airport the anemometer is located so as to give readings representative of conditions on the airfield, as indicated on aerodrome charts. Indicators are located in the appropriate Air Traffic Service Units, but in Reykjavik an indicator is also located in the Meteorological Office. Wind speed is reported in knots.

GEN 3.5.3.3 Visibility

The visibility reported in all observations is the prevailing visibility. It is estimated from known distances in the environment. When the lowest visibility is different from the prevailing visibility, and 1) less than 1 500 m or 2) less than 50 per cent of the prevailing visibility and less than 5 000 m; the lowest visibility observed should also be reported and its general direction in relation to the aerodrome indicated by reference to one of the eight points of the compass. If the lowest visibility is observed in more than one direction, then the most operationally significant direction should be reported. When the visibility is fluctuating rapidly, and the prevailing visibility cannot be determined, only the lowest visibility should be reported, with no indication of direction.

GEN 3.5.3.4 Runway visual range (RVR)

At Akureyri, Egilsstadir, Keflavik and Reykjavik Airports, Instrumented Runway Visual Range Systems (RVR) are installed, as indicated on aerodrome charts. RVR values are included in METARs from when either the horizontal visibility or the runway visual range is observed to be less than 1500 metres.
The lower limit of the systems is at 10 metres.
RVR is reported in increments of 25m up to 400m, 50m between 400 and 800m and 100m to the upper limiting values which is 1500m.

GEN 3.5.3.5 Cloud height

Cloud height is estimated at all airports, but with ceilometer as an aid at Akureyri, Egilsstadir, Keflavik, Reykjavík, Isafjordur, Hornafjordur, Husavik and Vestmannaeyjar.
Cloud types are not given except for TCU and CB clouds.

GEN 3.5.3.6 Temperature / dew point

Air temperature and dew point are measured and reported in METAR from all airports.

GEN 3.5.3.7 QNH

Altimeter setting is reported in hPa which equals millibars.
 

GEN 3.5.3.8 Wind shear

Low level wind shear is not measured instrumentally at Icelandic Airports. Reports of wind shear from aircraft landing or taking off, or evidence of its existence as deduced from other available information can be included in METARs or MET-Reports (in ATIS) if of long duration. Information is given by voice regarding wind shear (of short or long durations) in the vicinity of aerodromes.

GEN 3.5.3.9 Meteorological upper air observations -
Thermodynamic diagrams

Weather balloons with radiosonde are launched twice every day at Keflavik aerodrome, at 11:00 and 23:00. IMO staff at Keflavik aerodrome perform the launches. Before launch, authorization must be given by the Keflavik air traffic control service.  service. Authorization must also be given by Reykjavik ACC.
In the period from 1. September to 10. May, weather measurement balloon with radiosonde is launched once every day at 11:00 at Egilsstadir aerodrome. Egilsstadir Airport staff perform the launch. Before launch, authorization must be given by the Egilsstadir AFIS. Authorization must also be given by Reykjavik ACC.
Irregular launches of weather balloons: In certain circumstances, i.e. during eruption, number of launches can be increased at Keflavik and Egilsstadir airport up to four times a day. Prior to launch, authorization must be given in accordance with regular launches. Information on irregular launches at Keflavik and Egilsstadir shall be published in NOTAM.
During volcanic eruption, a mobile radiosonde station can be deployed near the active volcano. Also Also, it can be deployed for research and training purposes. Weather balloons with radiosonde will be launched by IMO scientists. scientists. When Prior to launch, authorization must be given by Reykjavik ACC. When the launching site is near an aerodrome, further authorization must be given by the respective AFIS/ATC services. Information on mobile radiosonde launches shall be published in NOTAM.
The results of the upper air measurements from BIKF and BIEG are published at the Icelandic Met. Office website;

https://en.vedur.is/weather/aviation/upper-air-observations/
 

GEN 3.5.3.10 Meteorological Stations

See tables GEN 3.5.3.11 & GEN 3.5.3.12.

GEN 3.5.3.11 List of Meteorological Stations for International Air Navigation

INDEX NO STATION COORDINATES HEIGHTS REMARKS
1 2 3 4 5
030 Reykjavík I. 6408N 02154W 52 m  
005 Bolungarvík 6610N 02315W 26 m  
063 Akureyri 6541N 01806W 23 m Observation taken in City
089 Egilsstaðaflugvöllur II. 6516N 01424W 23 m  
097 Dalatangi 6516N 01335W 9 m  
082 Höfn 6416N 01512W 8 m  
064 Kirkjubæjarklaustur -
Stjórnarsandur I.
6348N 01801W 22 m  
048 Vestmannaeyjar 6324N 02017W 118 m  
018 Keflavik Aerodrome III. 6358N 02235W 47 m  
  1. Á klst. fresti / Hourly reports
  2. Synop skeyti er búið til úr sjálfvirkri athugun og METAR skeyti /
    Synop report is made from an automatic weather station and a METAR
  3. Á hálftíma fresti. Allar aðrar stöðvar athuga á 3ja klst. fresti (t.d. 00. 03. 06. o.s.frv.) / Half hourly reports. All other stations report at synoptic hours (i.e. 00. 03. 06. etc.)

GEN 3.5.3.12 Meteorological Stations & Webcams

Met. observations including webcams available online at IMO en.vedur.is and at Road Service road.is/.

GEN 3.5.3.13 Meteorological observations and reports

Name of station / 
ICAO Location Indicator
Type and frequency of Observation Types of MET reports Observation System and Site(s) Hours of Operation (UTC) Climatological information
1 2 3 4 5 6
BIKF -
KEFLAVÍK / Keflavik
 
Half Hourly METAR Ultrasonic Wind Sensor Cup Anemometer
RWY RVR EQPT
Ceilometer
H24

Íslenska / Icelandic https://www.vedur.is/vedur/%20flugvedur/vedurfar/

Enska / English https://en.vedur.is/weather/%20aviation/climate/
BIRK -
REYKJAVÍK / Reykjavik
 
Hourly METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer RWY RVR EQPT
Ceilometer
H24
BIAR - 
AKUREYRI / Akureyri
 
Hourly METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer RWY RVR EQPT
Ceilometer
H24
BIEG -
EGILSSTAÐIR / Egilsstadir
 
Hourly METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer RWY RVR EQPT
Ceilometer
H24
BIBD -
BÍLDUDALUR / Bildudalur
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer See AD 2.3.7
BIIS -
ÍSAFJÖRÐUR / Isafjordur
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Ultrasonic Wind Sensor Ceilometer See AD 2.3.7
BIGJ -
GJÖGUR / Gjogur
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer See AD 2.3.7
BIGR -
GRÍMSEY / Grimsey
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer See AD 2.3.7
BIHU -
HÚSAVÍK / Husavik
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer Ceilometer See AD 2.3.7
BITN -
ÞÓRSHÖFN / Thorshofn
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer See AD 2.3.7
BIVO -
VOPNAFJÖRÐUR / Vopnafjordur
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer See AD 2.3.7
BIHN -
HORNAFJÖRÐUR / Hornafjordur
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Cup Anemometer Ceilometer See AD 2.3.7
BIVM -
VESTMANNAEYJAR / Vestmannaeyjar
 
Hourly during ATS Operations Hours METAR SPECI Ultrasonic Wind Sensor Ceilometer See AD 2.3.7

GEN 3.5.4 Types of Services

All aeronautical meteorological services are provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office 24 hours a day. These services are available through direct contact with meteorologist, through an answering machine or through the Internet.
  1. Personal briefing by a meteorologist is only available at the IMO headquarters, close to the Reykjavik airport (Bustadavegi 9).
    For users at other airports, a personal briefing by a meteorologist is provided by telephone.
    Information can be obtained by calling: Tel: + 354 522 6000
  1. Information about low level flight conditions over Iceland are provided in plain language in English, by means of a recorded telephone message three times during the day
  1. Weather information for aviation can also be reached on the IMO website.
  1. For international flights, the flight documentation comprises a significant weather chart (SWC), upper wind and upper air temperature charts and the latest available aerodrome forecasts for the destination and its alternate aerodromes as well as SIGMET, satellite pictures etc.
  1. For the planning of domestic flights, both VFR and IFR, up to FL 180, summary forecasts of low level flight conditions over Iceland are disseminated in plain language in English, as written before. Pilots can obtain this information by dialling the telephone number:
    +354 902 0600 select 5.
    The time of validity is: 07:00-12:00, 12:00-17:00 and 17:00-23:00.
    The low level flight conditions over Iceland contain description and forecasts of the main weather components such as surface winds, winds and temperature at FL050, FL100 and FL180, visibility, weather phenomena, clouds, freezing level, ice and turbulence.
  1. Aerodrome meteorological reports METAR are issued as listed in GEN 3.5.3.11.

GEN 3.5.4.1 Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)

Name of Station Type of Services Hours of Service Time of Validity Time of Issue
1 2 2 3 5
Keflavik - BIKF
Reykjavik - BIRK
Egilsstadir - BIEG
Akureyri - BIAR
TAF
TAF AMD
TAF COR
H24 00 - 24
03 - 03
06 - 06
09 - 09
12 - 12
15 - 15
18 - 18
21 - 21
23
02
05
08
11
14
17
20
Isafjordur - BIIS
Bildudalur - BIBD
Husavik - BIHU
Hornafjordur BIHN
Vestmannaeyjar - BIVM


TAF
TAF AMD
TAF COR


During ATS Hours of Services

See AD 2.3.7
08 - 17
11 - 20
14 - 23
17 - 02
07:30
10:30
13:30
16:30

GEN 3.5.5 Notification required from operators

Prior notification from operators in flight documentation for scheduled flight is in accordance with signed agreement. Prior notification from operators in respect of flight documentation, is normally required for a nonscheduled flight or a changed flight schedule, is usually asked for at least 2 hours before ETD (estimated time departure).
The request shall comprise all necessary details concerning planned flights (ref. ICAO Annex 3, paragraph 2.3.4).
When meteorological information has been collected well in advance of the ETD, the meteorological office should be consulted before departure for a possibly amended briefing.

GEN 3.5.6 Aircraft Reports

Pursuant to Annex 3, Chapter 5, significant meteorological conditions encountered during flight within Reykjavik FIR/ CTA and during the climb-out or approach phases of flight at aerodromes in Reykjavik FIR/ CTA shall be reported to the MET Office in Reykjavik.
No formal MET Reporting Points have been established. Reports shall be in accordance with Regional Supplementary Procedures, Doc 7030.
These reports can be reported at IMO website as PIREP: 

https://en.vedur.is/weather/aviation/pirep
 
 

GEN 3.5.7 VOLMET Service

Name of Station Call Sign 
ID (EM)

Frequency
 
Broadcast Period Hours of Service Aerodromes Included Contents / Format / Remarks
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
KEFLAVIK SHANNON VOLMET

3413 KHZ HN
(during night)

5505 KHZ
H24

8957 KHZ
H24

13264 KHZ
HJ
(during day)


H+00 to H+25

and

H+30 to H+55

H24

KEFLAVIK

Nil
Volmet service is provided for the Keflavik airport through Shannon VOLMET in Ireland.

GEN 3.5.8 SIGMET Service

GEN 3.5.8.1 General

For the safety of air traffic, IMO maintains an area meteorological watch and warning service. This service consists of a continuous weather watch within the Reykjavik FIR/CTA and the issuance of appropriate information (SIGMET). Warnings for the meteorological aerodromes are only included in the official weather warnings for Iceland, issued by the IMO.

GEN 3.5.8.2 Area meteorological watch service

The area meteorological watch service performed by the Icelandic Meteorological Office, includes dissemination of meteorological information to the ATS Units within the Reykjavik FIR/CTA and issuing SIGMETs.
A SIGMET message is issued when any of the following phenomena is occurring or expected to occur within the Reykjavik FIR/CTA:
Active thunderstorm     TS (GR)
Tropical cyclon     TC (+ name)
Severe turbulence     SEV TURB
Severe icing     SEV ICE (FZRA)
Severe mountain waves     SEV MTW
Heavy duststorm     HVY DS
Heavy sandstorm     HVY SS
Volcanic ash     VA (+ volcano name)
SIGMETs are written according to ICAO Doc 8400 (Abbreviations and Codes). They are numbered consecutively for each day commencing at 0001. Each phenomenon is assigned a letter starting with A. That is A01, B01, etc. The period of validity is up to four hours, except up to six hours for Volcanic Ash SIGMETs.
The Icelandic Meteorological Office is responsible for the distribution and transmission of the Reykjavik FIR/CTA SIGMETs .
Name of MWO /
Location Indicator

Hours

FIR or CTA
served

Type of
SIGMET
validity

Specific Procedures

ATS
Unit
served

Additional Information
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Reykjavik-BIRK H24 Reykjavik FIR/
CTA


Weather SIGMETs for
Reykjavik FIR/
CTA

Volcano
SIGMETs for
Reykjavik FIR/
CTA consisting
of preeruption
warnings, and
also warnings
during the
eruptions
NIL Reykjavik
ACC
RCC
TWR
 


Languages:
English and Icelandic
Charts Available:
S, U, P, W, T

MET information/ flight
folders are available from
flight dispatchers, for
example at Keflavik Airport.

If requested, flight folder
and weather briefing by a
meteorologist is available
by telephone at IMO
Reykjavik tel: +354 5226000
Note:
Charts Available:
S = surface analysis (current chart);
U = upper air analyses (3 = 300 h Pa);
P = prognostic upper air chart ;
W = significant weather chart ;
T = tropopause chart
SIGMETs are broadcasted through ATIS at Keflavik and Reykjavik airport as applicable.
Reykjavik Oceanic Control Center transmit SIGMET, affecting the respective flight to pilot flying in BIRD CTR, through CPDLC, Iceland Radio or on control frequencies.

GEN 3.5.9 Other automated meterological services

Aeronautical operational meteorological data is available via the Internet.
At the Icelandic Meteorological Office, https://en.vedur.is/
weather/aviation/ with observational data and forecasts and at Northavimet https://www.northavimet.com
Password Access can be obtained from Northavimet.