AIC – ÍSLAND / ICELAND
Isavia ANS ehf., Reykjavíkurflugvelli, 102 Reykjavík /
Isavia ANS, Reykjavik Airport, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland
Sími / Telephone: + 354 424 4000
ais@isavia.is
http://www.isavia.is/ 

 
AIC A 018 / 2016
Effective from  09 DEC 2016
Published on 09 DEC 2016
 

 
Keflavik (BIKF)- Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) /
Keflavík (BIKF) -Tími á flugbraut (ROT)
 

Content Responsibility:  ISAVIA ANS

1 Keflavík (BIKF)- Tími á flugbraut (ROT)

1.1 Introduction

Keflavik Airport has during recent years become more and more busy airport with traffic flow at all times increasing greatly. We anticipate the growth continuing further into the future. During this growth it is vital to work on better usage of runways and the control area. This AIC aims to increase awareness of the significance of Runway Occupancy Times (ROT) and to highlight how enhancements can be made. Isavia and airlines need to work collaboratively to ensure existing infrastructure is utilized efficiently to its full potential and that the capacity of the current runways is maximized.

1.2 Background

ROT is one of the main factors that affects an airport's efficiency and user airlines commercial success. Small reductions in the average time that an aircraft spends can have a significant influence on the overall runway capacity and throughput. By world standards, the average ROT at Keflavik Airport is high. This higher than average ROT results in less movements per hour than otherwise would be achievable. By aircrew focusing on their individual ROT, they can directly help to reduce delays and improve both the airports efficiency and the commercial success of all users.

Consistency of runway occupancy performance by pilots is one of the key factors that influence the ATC controller's planning. If the controller, responsible for runway movements can rely upon the pilot to always minimize occupancy time consistent with safety, the utilization efficiency of the runway will be maximized to the benefit of all.

1.3 Landing aircraft

ROT during landing varies depending on the location of exits, wind and runway surface conditions. Consistent and predictable runway occupancy times assist controllers to deliver optimum separation.

For Rapid Exit Taxiways (RETs) with 30° turn-off the speed can be as high as 50 kts depending on type of a/c and conditions, for 45° turn-off it can be as high as 35 kts. For greater turn-off angles maximum speed is usually around 10-15 kts.
 

The lack of RETs has great impact on the ROT but improvements will be made during the construction phases 2017. Today the only RET is K1 for RWY 01 (45°). RWY 29 has an especially high ROT (two min. AVG) but the distribution is high (one and a half to three min.).
If pilots focus on reducing this time (given conditions) we believe the average ROT time could be lower. High ROT leads to as much as triple longitudinal separation on final. Below is a comparison, on average ROT and ROT from test where pilots tried their best to reduce the ROT.

 


Braut / RWY
Meðal tími á braut eftir lendingu /
AVG ROT after landing
Lægsti tími á braut í prófunum /
Lowest ROT during test
02 að/at N402:0001:40
02 að/at K101:3000:55
11 að/at E401:3001:03
20 að/at S201:1501:02
29 að/at K402:0001:32

 

 The table shows that even though conditions do not always allow rapid vacating of runways, it should be possible, in good conditions, to reduce the average ROT even though the RETs are not available yet.

1.4 Minimizing Arrival runway occupancy times

The key to better runway utilization is to safely minimize time on the runway. It is imperative to vacate the runway as quickly as practicable to enable ATC to apply minimum spacing on final approach and minimize the occurrence of 'go-arounds'.

Aircraft should be pre-configured to achieve minimum runway occupancy by pre-selecting the preferred runway exit and include the use of tools such as Auto-brakes.

To achieve minimum ROT and reduce go-arounds due to an occupied runway, pilots should plan to vacate the runway via the first available exit taxiway.

It is more efficient in minimizing ROT to make the second exit rather than try for the first, overshoot it and then have to roll slowly to the second.

Vacate the runway as quickly as possible after landing. Unless otherwise instructed, do not stop on the RET until the entire aircraft has passed the runway holding point. Delayed exit from the runway may disrupt traffic flow and is strongly discouraged. The prime causal factor for causing go-arounds at Keflavik airport is landing aircraft that are slow to vacate the runway.

Note: Pilots are advised that there may be occasions when late landing clearances can be expected. Landing clearance may be issued while the runway is still occupied if controller has reasonable assurance of aircraft vacating in due time.

1.5 Departing Aircraft

Minimizing Departure Runway Ooccupancy Times can be helped as follows:

When in a departure queue maintain minimum safe separation from the aircraft in front, however when you are number one, hold AT the holding point/stop bar not some way behind it.

Pilots should arrange their taxi such that they are ready to depart without delay on reaching the runway holding point.

Where possible, cockpit checks should be completed in due time prior to line up to minimize any checks required on the runway.

1.6 Conditional Line-up Clearance

Listen to your line up instructions as they may be conditional used by ATC to facilitate an expeditious flow of traffic. If given a conditional line up clearance, plan your taxi onto the runway so that you do not need to stop unless absolutely necessary. Unless given instructions to line-up and wait, pilots should be ready and prepared to depart without stopping. On receipt of take-off clearance, pilots are to commence take-off roll without delay.

On receipt of the line-up clearance, aircraft are expected to taxi into position expeditiously. Cockpit checks must be complete prior to line-up. Aircraft that cannot comply with these requirements are to notify ATC as soon as possible. On receipt of a line-up clearance, pilots are to ensure, that they are able to line-up on the runway as soon as the preceding aircraft has passed the line-up position

Pilots in receipt of a conditional line-up clearance on a preceding departing aircraft must re-main behind the subject aircraft but may cross the runway holding point and then enter the runway upon receipt of the clearance.

Standard ICAO wake turbulence separation is applied. If Pilots require more separation than the standard, or extra time for any other reason, advice ATC early PRIOR to taxi. In order for ATC to accept such requests other traffic may have to be reorganized.

When cleared for take-off, the controller will expect, and have planned on, seeing movement within 8 to 10 seconds of the take-off clearance being issued.

A pilot receiving the ATC instruction 'cleared for immediate take-off' is required to act as follows:

  1. if already lined-up on the runway, take-off without delay;
  2. if waiting clear of the runway, taxi immediately on to it and begin take-off run immediately without stopping the aircraft;
  3. if unable to comply with the instruction, inform ATC immediately.
     

If ATC and pilots work together, efficiency will be improved to the benefit of all, while maintaining high safety standards.

1.7 Further Information

For further information, please contact:


Netfang / Email: procedures@isavia.is

 


Upplýsingabréf fellt út gildi: / AIC hereby cancelled:  
Ekkert / NIL

 


Efni eftirfarandi NOTAM skeyta birt í þessu upplýsingabréfi: / NOTAM incorporated in this AIC:
Ekkert / NIL

 


ENDIR / END