ENR 1.6 ATS SURVEILLANCE SERVICES AND PROCEDURES

 
(ICAO PANS ATM (DOC 4444), ICAO DOC 7030, NAT DOC 007)
  1. A part of the Air Traffic Services is ATS Surveillance services which enhances safety and efficiency to aviation. ATS Surveillance service is provided in accordance with ICAO rules and regulations but coverage, controller workload and equipment capabilities, may effect the service.The controller shall determine whether he is able to provide, or continue to provide ATS Surveillance service in any specific area.
  2. ATS Surveillance service increases airspace utilization by allowing ATC to reduce separation between aircraft. In addition, ATS Surveillance permits provision of flight information services, such as traffic information, and ATS Surveillance navigation assistance. Due to limitations inherent in all ATS Surveillance systems, it it is only possible to detect weather disturbance on primary radar.

ENR 1.6.1 Primary Radar

ENR 1.6.1.1 Supplementary services

  1. The ATS Surveillance systems are to be considered as a supplement to the basic procedural system in the approach areas for BIKF, BIRK and BIAR. Primary radar is used to provide separation where benefits to aircraft, safety or expedition can be obtained.

ENR 1.6.1.2 The application of radar control service

Identification is achieved according to the provisions specified by ICAO, see ENR 1.6.3.3.
  1. ATS Surveillance service based on primary radar is provided within:
    1. Akureyri TMA, within coverage of primary radar situated at Akureyri Aerodrome; and
    2. FAXI TMA (the approach areas for Reykjavik and Keflavik).
This service may include:
  1. ATS surveillance separation of arriving, departing and en-route aircraft;
  2. ATS Surveillance monitoring of aircraft in accordance with a. to provide information on deviation from current flight plan;
  3. vectoring when required;
  4. assistance to aircraft in emergency;
  5. warning and position information on other aircraft considered to constitute a hazard;
  6. information on observed weather.
  1. Severe Weather Information
Primary radar-equipped ATC units can often provide information on the location and movement of areas of heavy precipitation. However, during severe weather conditions the radar may be adjusted to eliminate or reduce radar returns from heavy precipitation areas in order to permit the detection of aircraft. When requested by a pilot, and provided traffic conditions permit, controllers will provide the pilot with detailed information on the location of heavy precipitation areas.

ENR 1.6.1.3 Radar and air-ground communication failure procedures

  1. In the event of radar failure or loss of identification, instructions will be issued to restore procedural separation standard.
  2. The controller will establish whether the aircraft radio receiver is working by instructing the pilot to carry out a turn or a squawk. If the turns / squawks are observed, the controller will continue to provide surveillance service to the aircraft.
  3. If the aircraft's radio is completely unserviceable, the pilot should carry out the procedures for radio failure in accordance with ICAO provisions, see ENR 1.8.6. Domestic flights shall adhere to procedures as published in GEN 3.4.4.12.3. If identification has already been established, the controller will vector other identified aircraft clear of its track until such time as the aircraft leaves surveillance coverage.
  4. If communication is lost with an aircraft being vectored the pilot is expected to proceed by the most direct route practicable to the NAVAID/position/route as specified in the last clearance.
  5. In the event of an aircraft radio receiver failure, a pilot shall select Mode C Code 7600 and follow established procedures; subsequent control of the aircraft will be based on those procedures.

ENR 1.6.1.4 Voice and CPDLC position reporting requirements

Flights shall monitor the appropriate controller/pilot frequency when within surveillance coverage. Information on frequencies can be found in section ENR 2.1.

CPDLC service is not available within the approach areas for Akureyri, Reykjavik and Keflavík airports.

ENR 1.6.1.5 Radar coverage

Keflavik and Reykjavik Approach Controls operate terminal area primary radar station at Keflavik Airport (635919N 0223513W).
The radar coverage for primary radar is 60 NM.
Akureyri Approach Control operates primary terminal area radar station situated at Akureyri Aerodrome (6539N 01805W). The radar coverage is 20 NM.
See ENR 6.1-11for graphic portrayal of area of radar coverage.

ENR 1.6.2 SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR (SSR)

ENR 1.6.2.1 Emergency procedures

If the pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency has previously been directed by ATC to operate the transponder on a specific Code, this Code shall be maintained until otherwise advised. In all other circumstances, the transponder shall be set to Mode A/3 Code 7700.
Notwithstanding the procedure in the paragraph above, a pilot may select Mode C Code 7700 whenever the nature of the emergency is such that this appears to him to be the most suitable course of action.
Note: Continuous monitoring of responses on Mode C Code 7700 is provided.

ENR 1.6.2.2 Air-ground communication failure and unlawful interference procedures

  1. The controller will establish whether the aircraft radio receiver is working by instructing the pilot to carry out a turn or a squawk. If the turns / squawks are observed, the controller will continue to provide surveillance service to the aircraft.
  2. If the aircraft's radio is completely unserviceable, the pilot should carry out the procedures for radio failure in accordance with ICAO provisions, see ENR 1.8.6. Domestic flights shall adhere to procedures as published in GEN 3.4.4.12.3. If identification has already been established, the controller will vector other identified aircraft clear of its track until such time as the aircraft leaves surveillance coverage.
  3. If communication is lost with an aircraft being vectored the pilot is expected to proceed by the most direct route practicable to the NAVAID/position/route as specified in the last clearance.
  4. In the event of an aircraft radio receiver failure, a pilot shall select Mode C Code 7600 and follow established procedures; subsequent control of the aircraft will be based on those procedures.
  5. In the event of an unlawful interception, a pilot shall select Mode C Code 7500 and follow established procedures, subsequent control of the aircraft will be based on those procedures.

ENR 1.6.2.3 The system of SSR code assignment

The Icelandic Transport Authority is responsible for allocation of Mode S (Hex) codes. To apply for a code fil in the form FO-FRD-010  APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT MODE “S“ TRANSPONDER ICAO CODE á www.samgongustofa.is and send to 406@icetra.is. 
Isavia ANS is responsible for allocation of Mode A transponder codes in Iceland.
  1. Permanent transponder codes are generally only allocated to aircraft that always operate on the same callsign, such as registration. The available codes are from 1000-1777, with a few exceptions. The allocation is published in an Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC) when updates are required.
  2. To apply for a new permanent code contact Isavia ANS by sending an e-mail to ssr@isavia.is . A few weeks might pass from the initial allocation of a new transponder code until a new AIC is published. Information on permanent code applications is found in AIC - Allocated transponder codes.
  3. Other transponder codes are allocated per-flight according to instructions from Air Traffic Services.
  4. Flights that do not have a permanent transponder code nor an allocated transponder code from ATS shall operate the transponder as stated in the following:
    • IFR Flights within Reykjavik FIR: Mode-A, Code 2000.
    • VFR flights within Reykjavik FIR: Mode-A, Code 1200.

ENR 1.6.2.4 Voice and CPDLC position reporting requirements

  1. Flights shall monitor the appropriate controller/pilot frequency when within surveillance coverage. Information on frequencies can be found in section ENR 2.1.
  2. FANS 1/A ADS-C and CPDLC service is provided in the Reykjavik CTA, excluding FAXI TMA and BIAR TMA, as follows:
    1. In the whole airspace for aircraft that file Iridium (J7) and/or HF (J2) data link capability in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL.
    2. South of 82°N for aircraft that file Inmarsat (J5) data link capability in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL.
Aircraft shall log-on after departure or when passing the boundary from adjacent areas.

ENR 1.6.2.5 Radar coverage

The Area Control Service derives information from SSR radar stations in Iceland, the Faeroe Islands and the Shetland Island in Scotland with range varying from 200 NM to 250 NM at flight level 300 and above.
Keflavik and Reykjavik Approach Controls operate surveillance radar station at Keflavik Airport (635919N 0223513W).
The caverage is is 200 NM.
See ENR 6.1-11 for graphic portrayal of area of radar coverage.

ENR 1.6.2.6 Operation of SSR transponders

All aircraft operating as IFR flights in the Reykjavik CTA shall be equipped with a pressure-altitude reporting SSR transponder.
Unless otherwise directed by ATC, pilots of aircraft shall retain the last assigned identity (Mode A) code for period of 30 minutes after entry into Reykjavik CTA and operate using the identity (Mode A) code 2000 after this period.
Note: - This procedure does not affect the requirement for continuous operation of Mode C or the use of the special purpose codes (7500, 7600, 7700) in cases of unlawful interference, radio failure, interception or emergency.

ENR 1.6.3 AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE - BROADCAST (ADS-B)

ICAO DOC 7030.

ENR 1.6.3.1 Emergency procedures

  1. Transmit emergency alert (squawk codes 7500, 7600 and 7700) with ADS-B transmitter.
  2. Some ADS-B transmitters (DO-260 compliant ADS-B transmitters) incorporate a single emergency bit for the squawk codes 7500, 7600 and 7700 and therefore do not indicate the nature of the emergency. Thus when activated, the pilot will need to contact ATC to communicate the type of emergency.
  3. Such ADS-B transmitters are also unable to squawk ident while the general emergency mode is being transmitted. Other ADS-B transmitters operate the emergency and/or urgency mode as follows:
    1. emergency;
    2. communication failure;
    3. unlawful interference;
    4. minimum fuel; and/or medical.

ENR 1.6.3.2 Air-ground communication failure and unlawful interference procedures

  1. The controller will establish whether the aircraft radio receiver is working by instructing the pilot to carry out a turn or a squawk. If the turns / squawks are observed, the controller will continue to provide surveillance service to the aircraft.
  2. If the aircraft's radio is completely unserviceable, the pilot should carry out the procedures for radio failure in accordance with ICAO provisions, see GEN 3.4.4.12. Domestic flights shall adhere to procedures as published in GEN 3.4.4.12.4. If identification has already been established, the controller will vector other identified aircraft clear of its track until such time as the aircraft leaves surveillance coverage.
  3. If communication is lost with an aircraft being vectored the pilot is expected to proceed by the most direct route practicable to the NAVAID/position/route as specified in the last clearance.
In the event of an aircraft radio failure, a pilot shall select Emergency mode b. or if the ADS-B transmitter is unable select emergency mode and report to ATC that the radio is unservicable, f.ex. via CPDLC if possible. Follow established procedures, subsequent control of the aircraft will be based on those procedures.

ENR 1.6.3.3 Aircraft identification

  1. Aircraft equipped with ADS-B having an aircraft identification feature shall transmit the aircraft identification as specified in Item 7 of the ICAO flight plan or, when no flight plan has been filed, the aircraft registration.
  2. Whenever it is observed on the situation display that the aircraft identification transmitted by an ADS-B equipped aircraft is different from that expected from the aircraft, the pilot shall be requested to confirm and, if necessary, re- enter the correct aircraft identification.
Identification is achieved according to the provisions specified by ICAO.

ENR 1.6.3.4 Voice and CPDLC position reporting requirements

  1. Flights shall monitor the appropriate controller/pilot frequency when within surveillance coverage. Information on frequencies can be found in section ENR 2.1.
  2. FANS 1/A ADS-C and CPDLC service is provided in the Reykjavik CTA, excluding FAXI TMA and BIAR TMA, as follows:
    1. In the whole airspace for aircraft that file Iridium (J7) and/or HF (J2) data link capability in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL.
    2. South of 82°N for aircraft that file Inmarsat (J5) data link capability in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL.
Aircraft shall log-on after departure or when passing the boundary from adjacent areas.

ENR 1.6.3.5 ADS-B coverage

The Area Control Service derives information from ADS-B stations in Iceland, the Faeroe Islands and in Greenland with range varying from 200 NM to 250 NM at flight level 300 and above.
The Area Control Service also uses Space-based ADS-B with coverage south of 70N above FL 255.
See ENR 6.1-11 for graphic portrayal of area of ADS-B.

ENR 1.6.4 OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION AND PROCEDURES

ENR 1.6.4.1 MULTILATERATION (MLAT)

ENR 1.6.4.1.1 Emergency procedures

If the pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency has previously been directed by ATC to operate the transponder on a specific Code, this Code shall be maintained until otherwise advised. In all other circumstances, the transponder shall be set to Mode A/3 Code 7700.
Notwithstanding the procedure in the paragraph above, a pilot may select Mode C Code 7700 whenever the nature of the emergency is such that this appears to him to be the most suitable course of action.
Note: Continuous monitoring of responses on Mode C Code 7700 is provided.

ENR 1.6.4.1.2 MLAT and air-ground communication failure procedures

  1. The controller will establish whether the aircraft radio receiver is working by instructing the pilot to carry out a turn or a squawk. If the turns / squawks are observed, the controller will continue to provide surveillance service to the aircraft.
  2. If the aircraft's radio is completely unserviceable, the pilot should carry out the procedures for radio failure in accordance with ICAO provisions, see ENR 1.8.6. Domestic flights shall adhere to procedures as published in GEN 3.4.4.12.3. If identification has already been established, the controller will vector other identified aircraft clear of its track until such time as the aircraft leaves surveillance coverage.
  3. If communication is lost with an aircraft being vectored the pilot is expected to proceed by the most direct route practicable to the NAVAID/position/route as specified in the last clearance.
In the event of an aircraft radio receiver failure, a pilot shall select Mode C Code 7600 and follow established procedures; subsequent control of the aircraft will be based on those procedures.
In the event of an unlawful interception, a pilot shall select Mode C Code 7500 and follow established procedures, subsequent control of the aircraft will be based on those procedures.

ENR 1.6.4.1.3 Aircraft identification

Identification is achieved according to the provisions specified by ICAO.

ENR 1.6.4.1.4 Voice and CPDLC position reporting requirements

  1. Flights shall monitor the appropriate controller/pilot frequency when within surveillance coverage. Information on frequencies can be found in section ENR 2.1.
  2. CPDLC service is not available within FAXI TMA.

ENR 1.6.4.1.5 MLAT coverage

Keflavik and Reykjavik Approach Controls operate MLAT at Keflavik Airport (635919N 0223513W).
The MLAT coverage is 60 NM.
See ENR 6.1-11 for graphic portrayal of area of MLAT coverage.

ENR 1.6.4.2 MLAT, SSR and ADS-B

1.    Operating Procedures of Multilateration System, Secondary Surveillance Radar and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast
2.    Where surveillance information is derived from Multilateration System, Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) without associated primary radar coverage, it is not possible to provide traffic information on aircraft that are not transponder equipped or to provide some of the other flight information.
3.    The ATS Surveillance systems are to be considered as a supplement to the basic procedural system in the Reykjavík Centre and is used to provide separation based on ATS Surveillance system where benefits to aircraft, safety or expedition can be obtained. Non-availability of ATS Surveillance data will therefore not cause ATS's inability to perform its stated functions, but may degrade the quality of the service rendered. No ATS Surveillance manoeuvre should be undertaken unless it is assured that it will be completed and procedural separation re- established whilst any aircraft involved remains within ATS Surveillance coverage.
4.    Identifications
  1. Before providing ATS Surveillance service, ATC will establish identification in accordance with ICAO PANS ATM (Doc 4444) Chapter 8. Pilots will be notified whenever identification is established, or lost.
  2. Pilots are cautioned that identification of their flight does not relieve them of the responsibility for collision avoidance of terrain (obstacle) clearance. ATC will normally provide identified IFR flights with relevant information on observed targets. At locations where MLAT, SSR systems and ADS- B are used without co-located SRE equipment, ATC cannot provide traffic information on aircraft without a functioning transponder or ADS-B transmitter. The responsibility for terrain (obstacle) clearance is only accepted by ATC when vectoring IFR flights.
5.    Vectoring
  1. Vectoring is used when necessary for separation purposes, when required by noise abatement procedures, when requested by the pilot, or whenever vectoring will offer operational advantages to the pilot or the controller. When vectoring is initiated, the pilot will be informed of the location to which the aircraft is being vectored, or the purpose of the vector, e.g. for spacing or weather information.
  2. Aircraft on vector can be vectored to a published instrument approach aid, a Localizer (LOC) course, a VOR Radial/DME, NDB for final approach or to a position for visual approach.
  3. Vectors for cloud break procedures are not available. Pilots may cancel IFR at any time while being vectored within the Domestic Area below FL 200.
  4. Approach controllers will provide vectors onto final, onto LOC course or Radial/DME as follows:
    • Keflavík:
      Normally not closer than 10 NM, all runways (or as requested by pilots).
    • Reykjavík:
      Normally not closer than 7 NM for runway 13 (or as requested by pilots).
  5. ATC may require aircraft to make turns for identification. However, when more than one aircraft target is observed making turn, identification becomes difficult or impossible. Should misidentification be the result of more than one aircraft following the instructions issued by ATC it could be hazardous to the aircraft involved.
6.    Normally ATS Surveillance service will be continued until an aircraft leaves the area of ATS Surveillance coverage, enters uncontrolled airspace, or is transferred to an ATC unit not equipped with ATS Surveillance. When ATS Surveillance service is terminated the pilot will be informed accordingly.